After the server is set up, it is time to install JupyterHub.
It is probably best to update the packages installed on the server in case there are changes and updates to the operating system since the server was created.
sudo apt-get update is probably a reflex for those that use Linux a lot.
Open PuTTY and log into the server as the non-root sudo user we created in the last step. Then update the system:
$ sudo apt-get update $ sudo apt-get upgrade
Next we'll install Miniconda. In the last JupyterHub deployment, I installed the full version of Anaconda in the non-root user's home directory(
/home/peter/). The user's home directory is the default Anaconda3 installation location.
However, for this JupyterHub deployment, we'll install Miniconda in the
/opt directory. The Miniconda install is lighter than the full Anaconda install, and we don't need all the GUI applications that Anaconda provides. The packages that we need in this deployment of JupyterHub, we can install in a seperate virtual environment.
I followed this tutorial from Digital Ocean.
Go to https://repo.continuum.io/archive/ and look down the list of installs for the newest installer that corresponds to:
- Miniconda3 (not Miniconda2, we don't want legacy Python version 2.7)
- 64 (bit)
- .sh (linux shell script)
The URL of the latest Miniconda install for Linux will look something like:
To downland and install Miniconda on the server, we'll use the
curl command and and run the bash installer from the command line:
$ cd /tmp $ curl -O $ https://repo.continuum.io/miniconda/Miniconda3-latest-Linux-x86_64.sh $ sudo bash Miniconda3-latest-Linux-x86_64.sh
During the Miniconda install, we need to specify following installation directory:
We want to be able to run conda from the command line. So make sure to allow Miniconda to append your PATH during the installation. After installation, we need to reload the
.bashrc file because Miniconda made changes to our
.bashrc during the install (when it added conda to our PATH).
$ cd ~ $ source .bashrc
When the install is complete, look in
/opt, and see the
$ cd /opt $ ls miniconda3
Change Miniconda3 Permissions
Now we need to deal with some permission issues. Since I am running as the user
peter on the Digital Ocean server, I need to make sure that the user
peter has read, write, and execute permissions on the enitre
We can give our
peter user permissions with
$ cd /opt $ ls miniconda3 $ ls -la total 12 drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Oct 30 04:47 . drwxr-xr-x 23 root root 4096 Oct 29 17:49 .. drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 4096 Oct 30 04:47 miniconda3
Currently, the owner of the
miniconda3 directory is
root and the group is
root. The owner
root has read, write, execute privaleges (
rwx) and the group
root has read, execute privaleges (
r-x), but now write prvialeges.
Let's modify the read, write, execute privaleges so that the group
root can read, write, and execute (
$ sudo chmod -R g+w miniconda3/ $ ls -la total 12 drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Oct 30 04:47 . drwxr-xr-x 23 root root 4096 Oct 29 17:49 .. drwxrwxr-x 13 root root 4096 Oct 30 04:47 miniconda3
OK, now let's change the group corresponding to the
miniconda3/ directory from
$ sudo chown -R root:peter miniconda3/ $ ls -la total 12 drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Oct 30 04:47 . drwxr-xr-x 23 root root 4096 Oct 29 17:49 .. drwxrwxr-x 13 root peter 4096 Oct 30 04:47 miniconda3
Now the user
peter will be able to install packages using conda and pip in the miniconda3 installation in the
Now that the permissions are changed, we should be able to run conda from the command line. Try:
$ conda --version
If you see output, that means Miniconda was installed and conda can be run by the non-root user.
Create a virtual environment and install and packages
For this JupyterHub install, we are going to create a conda environment (a virtual environment) and install packages into that environment.
I had trouble with conda hanging during the JupterHub installation, and I wondered if it had something to do with the Anaconda installation being so large. (Really, now I think it might also have something to do with Python version 3.7).
When I tried to make a Python 3.7 conda env and install JupyterHub into it, conda downgraded Python from 3.7 to 3.6. So I think the conda env should have a Python 3.6 base. Also don't forget to install xlrd, this package is needed for pandas to read
$ conda create -n jupyerhubenv python=3.6 $ conda activate jupyterhubenv (jupyterhubenv)$ conda install numpy matplotlib pandas scipy sympy seaborn bokeh holoviews pyserial xlrd jupyter notebook (jupyterhubenv)$ conda install -c conda-forge pint altair (jupyterhubenv)$ conda install -c conda-forge jupyterlab (jupyterhubenv)$ conda install -c conda-forge jupyterhub
Run a very unsecured instance of Jupyter Hub just to see if it works
OK let's give JupyterHub a whirl. We'll start JupterHub for the first time. Note the
--no-ssl flag at the end of the command. This flag needs to be included or you won't be able to browse to the server. Also note we have to be our
(jupyterhubenv) virtual environment active when we run the command.
$(jupyterhubenv) jupyterhub --no-ssl
We see some output in the PuTTY window. The last line is something like
JupyterHub is now running at http://:8000/. The first time I set up JupyterHub, I wasn't able to see the site using a web browser. No web page loaded, and the connection timed out.
Why? It turns out Digital Ocean installs a firewall called ufw by default and turns the ufw firewall on. When the server was created, ufw was configured to only allow incoming connections on ports 22, 80 and 433. This output is shown when we first log into the Digitial Ocean server:
"ufw" has been enabled. All ports except 22 (SSH), 80 (http) and 443 (https) have been blocked by default.
But JupyterHub runs on port 8000 - it tells us so when JupyterHub starts. So we need to configure ufw to allow connections on port 8000 (at least for now, just to see if JupyterHub works).
To allow communication on port 8000 and start JupyterHub, type:
$ sudo ufw allow 8000 $ jupyterhub --no-ssl
Now we can browse to the server IP address of our Digital Ocean Droplet appended with
:8000. The web address should look something like: http://184.108.40.206:8000. You can find the IP address of the server by going into the Digital Ocean dashboard.
The JupyterHub login screen looks like:
Awesome! Quick log into JupyterHub using the username and password for the non-root sudo user (in my case
peter) that we set up and are using in our current PuTTY session.
You should see the typical notebook file browser with all the files you can see when you run
ls ~/. Try creating and running a new Jupyter notebook. The notebook works just like a Jupyter notebook running locally.
Quick! Log out and shut down jupyterhub
Warning! You should not run JupyterHub without SSL encryption on a public network.
Quick! Log out and shut down jupyterhub. (does quick really matter in internet security?) The site is running without any ssl security over regular HTTP not HTTPS. Key in [Ctrl] + [c] to stop JupyterHub.
The next step is to aquire a domain name and link it to our Digital Ocean server.